Introduction of Committees 委员会简介

AIMUN 2021 Committees and Topics

Ambassador Program 大使项目

Topic: Global Governance in the Post-Pandemic Era 后疫情时代的全球治理

The global outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has multi-levels of impact on countries around the world. Governments face challenges in coordinating and formulating strategic policies in the area of public health, economy and politics, and controlling the spread of virus across borders. Meanwhile, the COVID-19 pandemic also complicates some existing international issues. In the post-epidemic era, the existing global governance and international cooperation systems are in urgent need of new wisdom in the face of global governance challenges. In this committee, delegates will play the role of ambassadors to the United Nations and participate in the discussion of specific issues in each committee, and try to propose unique solutions and contribute their wisdom to the global governance system at a higher level.

新冠疫情的全球暴发对世界各国带来了多层次的冲击。疫情面前,各国政府面临卫生、经济、政治等方面的多重挑战;疫情的传播跨越国界,疫情带来的政治经济问题也跨越国界,同时,疫情也使得一些现有的国际问题复杂化。在后疫情时代,面对诸多挑战,现有的全球治理以及国际合作体系亟需新的智慧。大使项目是历年来北京大学亚洲国际模拟联合国大会的独创会议形式,在本委员会中,代表们将扮演各国驻联合国大使,深度参与各委员会中对具体议题的讨论,并尝试在更高层次上就全球治理体系提出独到的解决方案,贡献自己的智慧。

United Nations Security Council 联合国安全理事会

Topic: The Situation in the Middle East amid COVID-19 新冠疫情下的中东局势

The spread of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Middle East complicates the already tense and chaotic situation in the region. The prolonged continuation of the pandemic has led to the continuation of strict blockade policies in various countries, resulting in depressed national economic performance and difficult life for vulnerable groups such as women, children, informal workers, and refugees. The economic difficulties have further intensified the existing political conflicts, the unrest in Syria and Yemen continues, and the tensions between Iran and Israel are escalating, while the U.S. acts as an extraterritorial power is also stirring up the regional situation. In this meeting, delegates will play the role of representatives of members of the UN Security Council, to consult on how to restore stability in the Middle East and maintain regional peace, and adopt a resolution aimed at addressing the current challenges.

新冠疫情在中东地区的蔓延为本已紧张混乱的地区局势雪上加霜。疫情的长期持续导致各国延续严格的封锁政策,导致国民经济表现低迷,妇女、儿童、非正式工人、难民等弱势群体生活陷入困境。经济困难进一步激化了原有的政治矛盾,叙利亚、也门等国的动荡仍在持续,伊朗与以色列之间的紧张关系不断升级,与此同时域外势力也在不断搅动地区局势。在本次会议中,代表们将扮演各国驻联合国安理会代表,就如何恢复中东稳定、维护地区和平展开磋商,并最终通过一份旨在解决当前挑战的决议。

United Nations General Assembly 联合国大会

Topic A: Restrictions on Unilateral Coercive Economic Measures 限制单边强制性经济措施

Topic B: Review of Global Health Partnerships 全球卫生伙伴关系评估

The UN General Assembly consists of two topics. Unilateral coercive economic measures refer to the act of one country forcing another country to accept a certain policy through economic means. Common means include economic sanctions and trade embargoes. Many countries, including China, have long called for an end to such measures, believing that they are contrary to international laws and can seriously affect a country’s economy and livelihood. Amid the pandemic, the consequences of unilateral coercive economic measures are of particular concern, with some countries such as Iran indicating that unilateral coercive economic measures have had a significant negative impact on efforts to combat the epidemic, with a particularly severe impact on people’s livelihoods. In this context, the question of how to limit unilateral coercive economic measures has become a very relevant issue.

Effective international health cooperation is of great significance. Timely and effective global cooperation can help reduce the risk of emerging sudden global health threats. Regarding global institutions’ emergency response to the situation, questions about whether WHO has been acting effectively to contain the situation were raised. Therefore, there is a need to review the effectiveness and efficiency of existing global health partnerships in dealing with the COVID-19 outbreak, to re-consider possible improvements in reporting and communicating mechanisms, and propose practical reforms. These issues have become topics of common concern to countries around the world. In this committee, delegates will play the role of representatives to the UN General Assembly and discuss the above two major issues, and adopt a resolution to address the current challenges.

本次联合国大会模拟会议将采取双议题的形式。单边强制性经济措施指一国通过经济手段强迫另一国接受某一政策的行为,常见的手段包括经济制裁、贸易禁运等。许多国家认为这一类手段违反国际法,会严重影响一个国家的经济与民生,长期以来一直呼吁结束这一类措施。在疫情之下,单边强制性经济措施的使用和后果尤其值得关注,伊朗等一些国家表示单边强制性经济措施对抗疫努力带来了显著的负面影响,对民生的冲击尤为严重。在此背景下,如何限制单边强制性经济措施成为了一个极有现实意义的问题。

应对在全球范围内快速扩散的新冠疫情,国际卫生合作有着重大的意义,各国及时有效的协作可以减少全球卫生威胁的危害。当前,国际社会关于现有的WHO等全球卫生伙伴关系处理新冠疫情的有效性提出一定程度的质疑,在此背景下,全面地回顾现有的全球卫生伙伴关系,考虑相关机制中可以改进之处,并提出切实可行的改革方案,成为世界各国共同关心的重要议题。在本次会议中,代表们将扮演各国驻联合国大会代表,就上述两大议题展开讨论,并最终通过一份旨在解决当前挑战的决议。

United Nations General Assembly First Committee 联合国裁军审议委员会

Topic: Prevention of Arms Race in the Outer Space 外空军备竞赛的预防

Outer space is a common resource for all mankind. The peaceful uses of outer space align with the basic interests of all countries and the fundamental requirements of international peace. The UN General Assembly has adopted a series of treaties on outer space security, but there are still limitations in four key aspects: current focus is only on preventing the testing, deployment and use of weapons of mass destruction in outer space; the current discussion ignores the use of force or threat of force from Earth to outer space; gap yet to be filled after the abrogation of the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty; and the lack of provisions on universality. Currently, individual states seek to weaponize outer space, posing a threat to the common interests of the human community. For example, the growing amount of space debris is leading to an increasingly crowded and dangerous environment in the outer layers of the Earth; in deploying space weapons, the orbital groups of spacecraft can restrict access to other spacecraft, thus challenging the nature of outer space as a natural resource for all humanity, etc. In this conference, delegates will take on the role of representatives of states in the Disarmament Commission to discuss the peaceful uses of outer space and adopt a resolution aimed at addressing current challenges.

外层空间是全人类的共同资源,和平利用外层空间符合各国的基本利益与国际和平的基本要求。联合国大会曾通过了一系列空间安全方面的条约,但仍存在四个方面的局限性:仅仅关注防止在外空试验、部署和使用大规模毁灭性武器;忽视从地球向空间使用武力或威胁使用武力的问题;未填补《反弹道导弹条约》废止后留下的空白;缺乏普遍适用性的条款。目前,个别国家寻求将外层空间武器化,对人类社会的共同利益造成威胁。例如,空间碎片数量的不断增加导致地球外层的环境日益拥挤而危险;在部署空间武器的过程中,航天器的轨道组会限制其他航天器进入,从而对外层空间作为全人类自然资源的性质提出挑战,等等。在本次会议中,与会代表将扮演裁军审议委员会中的各国代表,就确保外层空间的和平利用展开讨论,并最终通过一份旨在应对当前挑战的决议。

United Nations Economic and Social Council 联合国经济及社会理事会

Topic: COVID-19 Relief for Refugees 针对难民的疫情援助

Refugee communities face particular difficulties amid the COIVD-19 pandemic. In terms of economic status, refugees are often in a poor economic condition, which has been exacerbated by the recession caused by the pandemic, while many of them have no health care coverage; in terms of social status, refugees are often in a marginalized position and are vulnerable to the negative impact of xenophobia caused by the pandemic. In addition, a great number of refugees live in camps with high population density, poor sanitary conditions, and high transmission rates. The pandemic has brought new challenges to the long-standing efforts of a great number of international organizations to assist the refugee community. New methods and mechanisms are needed to effectively mitigate the impact of the pandemic on the refugee community. In this conference, delegates will play the role of representatives of members of the UN Economic and Social Council, with the aim of negotiating an international action plan to assist refugees.

在新冠疫情冲击下,难民群体的生活尤为艰难。在经济方面,难民群体往往经济状况较差,同时很多难民都没有医疗保障,在经济衰退和疫情蔓延的时期境况更为艰难;在社会地位方面,难民往往处于社会中较为边缘的地位,容易受到疫情引发的排外情绪的负面影响。此外,大量难民集中居住于难民营之中,人员聚集程度较高,卫生条件较差,疫情传播的风险较大。长期以来,大量官方与非官方组织一直致力于对难民群体展开援助行动,但是新冠疫情对这一行动带来了新的挑战,因此需要新的手段来行之有效地缓解难民群体受到的疫情冲击。在本次会议中,与会代表将扮演联合国经社理事会中的各国代表,旨在通过谈判磋商共同制定出一份援助难民的国际行动方案。

Council of the European Union 欧盟理事会

Topic: Policy Coordination under Emergencies 紧急状态下的政策协调

Responding to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, the EU as a whole has failed to play its proper role in coordinating the fight against the pandemic in individual member states. For example, some member states announced the closure of borders between member states without coordinating with the EU, suspended exports of protective equipment, and even intercepted anti-pandemic supplies from other member states in the middle passage, raising new concerns within the EU about the future of integration. In the aftermath of the pandemic, member states may choose to strengthen EU leadership and coordinate public policies, or allow their authority to continue to fade, which determines the future direction of EU integration. In this committee, delegates will play the role of representatives of EU member states and key institutions in the negotiation and consultation process. The discussion will surround three dimensions, including the current state of EU public policy coordination, the problems of EU public policy coordination during the pandemic, and the obstacles to further strengthen EU public policy coordination.

在应对2020年春季新冠疫情首轮暴发的过程中,欧盟作为一个整体未能在协调各个成员国抗击疫情方面发挥其应有的作用。例如,部分成员国在没有与欧盟协调的情况下宣布关闭成员国之间的边界,暂停防护装备的出口,甚至中道截留其他成员国的抗疫物资,这在欧盟内部引发了对一体化前景的新担忧。疫情发生后,成员国可能选择加强欧盟领导、协调公共政策,也有可能任由其权威继续消退,而这种选择将决定欧盟一体化的未来方向。在本委员会中,与会代表将扮演欧盟各成员国和重要机构的代表进行谈判磋商,并从三个维度展开讨论,包括欧盟公共政策协调的现状,疫情期间欧盟公共政策协调出现的问题,以及欧盟公共政策进一步加强协调遇到的阻力何在。

CIS Ministerial Conference 独立国家联合体部长级会议

Topic: Political Coordination and Economic Cooperation 政治协调与经济合作机制

The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) has been controversial since its inception, and the direction of its development has oscillated between “integration” and “dis-integration”. At the same time, there are many disputes and complex relations among the CIS member states, and there are both centripetal and centrifugal forces. By maintaining better relations with Russia, Central Asian and Eastern European countries can raise their voice in the international arena. From an economic perspective, the CIS countries are in close proximity to each other, and regional economic integration will bring corresponding benefits. This is the centripetal force that promotes CIS integration. However, the effectiveness of its various policy planning has been limited due to the persistence of various conflicts of interests within the CIS. Therefore, in order to chart a course for the future of the CIS, the participating delegates will play the role of representatives of CIS member states and important sectors for negotiations and consultations, and will discuss issues such as collaboration on intra-regional division of labor, tariffs and market access, and trade preferences, etc.

独立国家联合体(简称“独联体”)自成立之初起至今一直饱受争议,其发展方向在“一体化”和“去一体化”反复摇摆。同时,独联体内部成员国之间的利益纠纷众多、关系复杂,既有向心力,又有离心力。中亚、东欧国家通过保持与俄罗斯较好的关系,可以提高在国际舞台上的话语权。经济上,独联体国家紧密相邻,区域经济一体化会带来相应的好处。然而,由于独联体内部一直存在各种矛盾,其各种政策计划的效力一直有限。因此,为了给独联体的未来划定方向,与会代表将扮演独联体各成员国和重要部门的代表进行谈判磋商,并需要就区域内分工的协作、关税与市场准入、贸易优惠政策等问题展开讨论。

ASEAN 10+6 Ministerial Conference 东盟10+6部长级会议

Topic: RCEP and Regional Economic Integration RCEP协定与区域经济一体化

In November 2020, the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (RCEP) was officially signed by fifteen countries, including China and Japan. The negotiations on this agreement were initiated by ASEAN, with a time span of eight years in total. After major turmoil such as India’s withdrawal from the negotiations, the RCEP was finally adopted with the active promotion from China and other parties. RCEP will become the FTA with the largest economic volume and the largest population coverage in practice, causing far-reaching impacts on the world economic and trade landscape. At this point, countries need to further clarify the specific roadmap for the implementation of the agreement, with a focus on how to maintain the normal functioning of regional cross-border supply chains amid the pandemic, and how to prevent the impact of political and diplomatic relations turmoil on normal trade and economic exchanges. In addition, this committee will discuss how to support India and other interested countries to join the agreement. Delegates will play the role of negotiators from the ASEAN 10+6 countries to discuss the above-mentioned topics and work towards the adoption of a joint statement that reflects the consensus of all parties.

2020年11月,《区域全面经济伙伴关系协定》(简称RCEP)由中国、日本等十五个国家正式签署。这一协定的有关谈判由东盟发起,历时八年,经过印度退出谈判等风波,最终在中国等方面的积极推动下取得成功。RCEP将成为实际上经济体量最大、覆盖人口最多的自贸区,对世界经贸格局造成深远影响。目前,缔约各国还需要进一步明确协定实施的具体路线图,并尤其注重讨论如果维持区域内跨国供应链在疫情之下的正常运转,以及如何防止政治外交关系风波对正常经贸往来造成冲击。此外,本委员会还将讨论是否以及如何支持印度和其他意向国家加入该协定的问题。与会代表们将扮演东盟10+6各国的谈判代表,就上述议题展开讨论,并致力于通过一份反映各方共识的联合声明。

Convention on Biological Diversity COP 15 《生物多样性公约》第十五次缔约方大会

Topic: Review of Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework

2020年后全球生物多样性框架审议

In recent years, the global ecological environment continues to deteriorate. Biodiversity loss is a direct result of human activity and constitutes a significant threat to human well-being in all regions of the world. Since the successful conclusion of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in 1992, successive Conferences of the Parties have adopted the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and the Nagoya Protocol, which have established norms for biosafety standards and access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing. However, the rate of biodiversity loss remains alarming and further targets are yet to be set and reached. In 2021, the 15th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP 15) will be held in Kunming, China. It is one of China’s largest and most anticipated diplomatic events. This meeting will serve as a precursor to the official Conference, inviting young students from all over China to play the role of members of the negotiating delegations in an attempt to negotiate and review the “post-2020 global biodiversity framework”.

近年来,全球生态环境持续恶化,人类和自然正面临着生物多样性丧失的挑战,赖以生存的地球正在承受着诸多灾难,这对国际社会加大保护生态环境力度提出了迫切要求。自从1992年《生物多样性公约》成功缔结以来,历届缔约方大会先后通过了《卡塔赫纳生物安全议定书》和《名古屋议定书》,为生物安全的标准和遗传资源的获取和惠益分享设立了规范。然而,生物多样性的丧失速度仍旧触目惊心,进一步的目标还有待设定和达成。2021年,《生物多样性公约》第十五次缔约方大会将在中国昆明举行,是中国规模最大、最受关注的主场外交活动之一。本次会议将作为正式大会的先导活动,邀请全国青年学子扮演各国谈判代表团成员,尝试通过磋商谈判制定出“后2020年全球生物多样性框架”。

联合国气候变化框架公约第二十六次缔约方会议

议题 :《巴黎协定》的实施细则

本次会议是原定于2020年(后因新冠疫情被迫推迟)在英国举办的联合国气候变化框架公约第二十六次缔约方会议,暂定于2021年11月1-12日于格拉斯哥举办。本次会议将涉及两大重点。其一,解决迟迟没有达成共识的巴黎协定第6条的实施细则问题;其二,讨论在新冠疫情背景下的应对气候变化议程。目前的气候变化进程已经到达了普通人也能在正常生活中观察到的程度,同时部分小岛屿国家已经到了生死攸关的边缘,因此能否达成碳减排与气温控制目标至关重要,而新冠疫情又打断了各国不断投入努力的进程。各国往届大会最大的分歧在于“共同但有区别责任”。在此基础上,最关键之处在于发达国家给予发展中国家应对气候变化所需的资金和技术。在本次会议中,与会代表需要在两种战略方案中做出抉择:暂缓对气候变化的进一步应对,现阶段着力于从新冠疫情中恢复;抑或继续应对气候变化的努力,在恢复经济的同时,坚持各国原有的减排承诺与资金责任。本次会议将邀请全国学子扮演各国谈判代表团成员,就上述问题展开磋商谈判。

世界贸易组织部长级会议

议题:世贸组织规则与制度改革

世贸组织是全球多边贸易的支柱,为世界各国提供了进行贸易谈判以及解决贸易争端的平台。长期以来,一直有观点认为世贸组织现有的规则,尤其是其争端解决机制存在不足之处。部分发展中国家认为世贸组织的加入条件没有充分考虑到其特殊的发展阶段,而个别发达国家则认为现有规则让发展中国家可以通过政府补贴在贸易中获得不公平的优势。关于世贸组织谈判中的一致同意原则,也有不少质疑其效率的声音。新冠疫情严重冲击全球贸易,部分国家内部的贸易保护主义以及单边主义思潮随之兴起,而争端解决机制在美国的阻碍下已经停摆。因此,本次会议将邀请全国青年学子扮演各国代表,研究和讨论如何对现有的世贸组织规则与制度进行改革,以使其有效地发挥促进全球贸易、解决贸易争端的作用。

Main Press Center 主新闻中心

Main Press Center (MPC) is a unique component of the Model United Nations system that is composed of diversified media that reports on the progress of the meeting in real-time, which consistently adheres to the principle of respecting facts and constantly explores more possibilities. As the fourth estate, MPC contributes to the agenda and result of the meetings in all Committees.  In AIMUN 2021, MPC journalists will track the dynamics in all Committees and release the regular newsletter AIMUN Daily in the morning on every conference day.

主新闻中心(简称 MPC)是模拟联合国体系的一个特殊委员会,它由多样化的媒体组成,负责实时报道会议进展情况。主新闻中心始终坚持尊重事实的原则,并在此基础上不断探索更多的可能性。在大会期间,媒体将为各个委员会推动会议进程和形成会议成果作出贡献。AIMUN 2021大会中,MPC各位记者将全程跟踪每个委员会的讨论,并于每日上午面向大会全体代表发布AIMUN Daily。